• International Friendship Children's Hospital

About BCG

The main use of BCG is for vaccination against tuberculosis. BCG vaccine can be administered after birth intradermally. BCG vaccination is recommended to be given intradermally. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a leading cause of human disease and death, particularly in developing countries. Emerging mycobacterial drug resistance is further complicating the situation. After decades of steady decline, the incidence of TB is also increasing in industralized countries, mainly as the result of outbreaks in particularly vulnerable groups. BCG vaccine has a documented protective effect against meningitis and disseminated TB in children.

About Polio

OPV consists of a mixture of live attenuated poliovirus strains. Three or more spaced doses of OPV are required. OPV produces antibodies in the blood to all three types of poliovirus, and in the event of infection, this protects the individual against polio paralysis by preventing the spread of poliovirus to the nervous system. OPV strains also produce a local immune response in the lining of the intestines – the primary site for poliovirus multiplication. The antibodies produced there inhibit the multiplication of subsequent infections of naturally occurring virus. Note: In very rare cases, the administration of OPV results in vaccine-associated paralysis associated with a reversion of the vaccine strains to the more neuro-virulent profile of wild poliovirus. In a few instances, such vaccine strains have become both neuro-virulent and transmissible and have resulted in infectious poliomyelitis.

About DPT

The pentavalent vaccine is a combination of five vaccines in one: diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenza type b ‘(‘ the bacteria that causes meningitis, pneumonia and otitis’)’

About BCG

Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. Measles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus. Measles is caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family and it is normally passed through direct contact and through the air. The highly contagious virus is spread by coughing and sneezing, close personal contact or direct contact with infected nasal or throat secretions. Accelerated immunization activities have had a major impact on reducing measles deaths.

About Japanese Encaphilitis

Japanese encephalitis ‘(‘JE’)’ is a disease spread by mosquitoes. JE is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many countries. Permanent neurologic or psychiatric sequelae can occur in 30%–50% of those with encephalitis. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection. Safe and effective JE vaccines recommended by WHO are available.

About Hib

Until recently, Hib was one of the most important causes of bacterial infection in young children. Hib causes a variety of diseases, such as meningitis ‘(‘inflammation of the coverings of the spinal column and brain), blood stream infections, pneumonia, arthritis, epiglottitis ‘(‘inflammation of the upper airway or “croup”’)’, and infection of other parts of the body. Since an effective vaccine has been available, very few cases of Hib disease are now diagnosed. H.influenzae type B ‘(‘Hib’)’ was estimated to have caused two to three million cases of serious disease, notably pneumonia and meningitis, and 450 000 deaths in young children. The Hib bacterium is commonly present in the nose and throat. Bacteria are transmitted from person to person in droplets through sneezing, coughing. Infected children may carry Hib bacteria without showing any signs or symptoms of illness, but they can still infect others. The risk of disease is highest for children between six months and two years of age.Several Hib conjugate vaccines are available. All are effective when given in early infancy, and have virtually no side effects except occasional temporary redness or swelling at the injection site. To reduce the number of injections, Hib vaccine is also given in combination vaccines, DTP-HepB+Hib.

About Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A virus ‘(‘HAV’)’ is present in the faeces of infected persons and is most often transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. Certain sex practices can also spread HAV. HAV infections can also be severe and life threatening. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HAV.Hepatitis A is an inflammatory disease of the liver caused by a virus.Hepatitis A vaccine can help protect against the disease; two shots are required, but some protection begins even after the first shot; the shots do not protect individuals against other hepatitis-causing viruses ‘(‘typesB, C and others’)’.Hepatitis A immune globulin may protect some people if administered shortly after initial exposure to the virus; research is ongoing to produce other treatments

About Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B virus ‘(‘HBV’)’ is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids. HBV can be transmitted from infected mothers to infants at the time of birth or from family member to infant in early childhood. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. HBV also poses a risk to healthcare workers who sustain accidental needle stick injuries while caring for infected-HBV patients. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV.

About Rota Virus

Rotavirus is a virus that infects the bowels. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children throughout the world and causes the death of about 500,000 children worldwide annually. Prior to the availability of a vaccine, almost all children became infected with rotavirus by their third birthday. Repeat infections with different viral strains are possible, and most children had several episodes of rotavirus infection in the first years of life. After several infections with different strains of the virus, children acquire immunity to rotavirus. Babies and toddlers between the ages of 6 and 24 months are at greatest risk for developing severe disease from rotavirus infection. Rotavirus affects populations in all socioeconomic groups, so differences in sanitation practices or water supply are not likely to affect the incidence of the infection.

About Influenza

Influenza is an acute viral infection of the respiratory tract which is considered to be one of the life-threatening infectious diseases. In certain countries, seasonal influenza affects up to 40 of the population every year, with the worldwide death toll of 500 million people. The virus can be transmitted by direct contact with infected individuals, via contaminated objects ‘also called fomites’ and by inhalation of virus-laden aerosols. An unexpected emergence of a new and highly virulent influenza virus strains can result in a world-wide pandemics with high morbidity and mortality – such as the ‘avian flu’ in 1997 and swine flu in 2009. The main targets of the influenza virus are the respiratory tract.

About Varicella

Chickenpox ‘varicella’ is a contagious illness that causes an itchy rashand red spots or blisters ‘pox’ all over the body. Chickenpox can cause problems for pregnant women, newborns, teens and adults, and people who have immune system problems that make it hard for the body to fight infection. After you have had chickenpox, you aren’t likely to get it again. But the virus stays in your body long after you get over the illness. If the virus becomes active again, it can cause a painful viral infection calledshingles. Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It can spread easily. You can get it from an infected person who sneezes, coughs, or shares food or drinks. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent Chicken pox.

About 23

Pneumococcal 23 is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of pneumococcal disease which causes pneumonia. It is currently recommended for use in children 2 years and older and at high risk for pneumococcal disease ‘e.g., those with sickle cell disease, HIV infection, or other immunocompromising conditions’.

About 13

This is about pneumococcal 13.

About A&C

A protective antibody response occurs within 10 days of vaccination. In schoolchildren and adults, one dose of these polysaccharide vaccines appears to provide protection for at least 3 years, but in children under 4 years of age the levels of specific antibodies decline rapidly after 2–3 years.All meningococcal conjugate vaccines have an excellent safety record. None has been associated with any serious adverse effects during clinical trials or in post-marketing surveillance. Redness, swelling and pain at the site of injection may occur, however. Such reactions usually start within the first day after immunization and last 1-3 days. Less commonly, children may develop a fever or be irritable for a short period.

About MMR

MMR stands for measles, mumps and rubella. These are three different diseases which are caused by three different viruses. The vaccines given to immunise against measles, mumps and rubella ‘MMR’ are all combined into one injection – the MMR vaccine. Even if you think your child has already had one of these diseases, your child should still have MMR immunisation.

About Typhoid

Typhoid fever/ Enteric Fever is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are clinically indistinguishable diseases, collectively called enteric fever. It easily spreads through contaminated food and water supplies and close contact with others who are infected & it is most commonly transmitted through the fecal-oral route.Patients with typhoid can contaminate the water supply with their stool, where the bacteria flourish. The food supply can become contaminated by infected stool, poor sanitation, or someone who fails to wash his hands after using the bathroom. Some people, known as chronic carriers, still harbor typhoid bacteria ‘and can still contaminate food and water supplies’ even after receiving antibiotic treatment and proving to be free of symptoms.

SN  Recommendd Age  Vaccine Immunization Against Schedule No.of Dose
1 Upto 45 days BCG * Tuberculosis  Single  Single
2 6 Weeks (11/2 Month) DPT * Diptheria, Pertusis, Tetanus  6 Doses  1st
Hepatitis ‘B’ * Hepatitis ‘B’  5 Doses  1st
Hib * Haemophilus Influenza ‘b’  4 Doses  1st
Oral Polio * Poliomyelitis  7 Doses  1st
 3 10 Weeks (21/2 Month) DPT * Diptheria, Pertusis, Tetanus

Note  * Compulsory Vaccine    **Recommended Vaccine  ***Optional Vaccine   **** Extra Vaccine